Research Question 3: Key Trends

What key trends do you expect to accelerate technology adoption in academic and research libraries over the next five years?

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The key trends trends, which are very likely to drive technology planning and decision-making over the next five years, are sorted into three impact-related categories: short-term impact, mid-term impact, and long-term impact.

Short-Term Impact Trends
These are trends that are driving technology adoption now, but will likely remain important for only next one to two years. They have also been referred to as "fads." Virtual Worlds was an example of a fast trend that swept up attention in 2007-8.

Mid-Term Impact Trends
These trends will be important in decision-making for a longer term, and will likely continue to be a factor in decision-making for the next three to five years.

Long-Term Impact Trends
These are trends that will continue to have impact on our decisions for a very long time. Many of them have been important for years, and continue to be so. These are the trends -- like mobile or social media -- that continue to develop in capability year over year.

Please "sign" your contributions by marking with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples- this produces a signature when the page is updated, like this: - Sam Sam Jul 1, 2013

We encourage you to add new trends that you don't see on the list! Compose your entries like this:

Trend Name
Add your ideas here with a few of sentences description including full URLs for references (e.g. And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!

When adding a new trend, please include a justification of whether it is a short-term impact, mid-term impact, or long-term impact trend.

Continual Progress in Technology, Standards, and Infrastructure
A recent survey of US academic library directors by Ithaka S + R revealed that libraries are shifting focus from building local print collections to providing remotely accessed online resources and guiding students and researchers through new discovery services. Indeed, a large majority of respondents believe that the importance of building local print collections has declined since the last survey was conducted in 2010. With the transition from physical resources to electronic resources, and the need for new services to support them, libraries are required to frequently assess the state of their operations. A number of trends are driving this focus, including the proliferation of mobile devices, the move towards data resources as part of infrastructure, including changes in identity management, and the increasing importance of cross-institutional systems, such as web-scale discovery and resource sharing, cloud computing, and distributed storage.
While this is certainly happening and important, there's too much in this description to have clear impact to readers, too broad, not enough focus for the way I think of the sections of the report. - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 15, 2015 - oren oren Apr 19, 2015 agree. In addition there is a bit of a mismatch between the title and the body of the text. I would argue that move to the cloud is one of the more important trends impacting libraries that relate to progress in technology and infrastructure. the transition from physical to electronic resources runs not that fast like expected. Especially in the European semi-public ARLs we have to live for a long time with both worlds. This is a challenge in terms of financial resources and ongoing quality improvement also in the physical world. - andreas.kirstein
Happening slowly - end result is still disappointing, both fluid and fractured, uncertain and with complex authentication - some way to go yet - DaveP DaveP Apr 19, 2015 I agree that there is a mismatch here between the title and the text, and would add that the title is overly broad. Progress in technology is a given. In regard to the move from print to online, that is certainly happening, and does impact libraries. But it has been happening for decades, and I don't see news here. I'd note that there has been a parallel shift to focus on special collections and other unique materials, be they print or digital, that are at the other end of the spectrum. That duality is worth noting. - mcalter mcalter Apr 21, 2015

Evolving Nature of the Scholarly Record
Once limited to print-based journals and monographic series, scholarly communications now reside in networked environments and can be accessed through an expansive array of publishing platforms. The Internet is disrupting the traditional system of scholarship, which was founded on physical printing and distribution processes that no longer apply. Now scholarly records can be published as soon as peer review has taken place, allowing communication to happen more frequently and more publicly than ever before. No longer limited to text-based final products, scholarly work can include research datasets, interactive programs, complex visualizations, lab articles, and other non-final outputs as well as web-based exchanges such as blogging. There are profound implications for academic and research libraries, especially those that are seeking alternative routes to standard publishing venues, which are often expensive for disseminating scientific knowledge. As different types and methods of scholarly communication are becoming more prevalent on the web, librarians will be expected to stay up-to-date on the legitimacy of these innovative approaches and their impact in the greater research community. - kevin-johnson kevin-johnson Apr 2, 2015 Another important driver in this arena is the relatively recent advent in the ease of self-publishing with Amazon Kindle, or on many platforms as via Feiyr (a German based distribution platform, which appears to work in the European (German) digital book market). As to the comments above, R. David Lankes in his highly regarded "Atlas of New Librarianship" suggests that librarians should become publishers of member content. The ease of digital self-publishing now opens this up, not just for dissertations, but for creative works in Science (non-fiction) or fiction by anyone over 18 years of age - i.e., undergraduates - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Apr 8, 2015Agreeing with the premise here and with Kevin's additional comments - andreas.kirstein andreas.kirstein Apr 8, 2015 agree as well - frank.scholze frank.scholze Apr 13, 2015 so do I - mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 13, 2015 me too. So do I - rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 16, 2015 me six. - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 This is growing - increasingly - institutions are publishing their own OA journals using the institutional repository as part of the publishing process. - DaveP DaveP Apr 19, 2015 - Sandy.hirsh Sandy.hirsh Apr 19, 2015 Adding my support to this important trend! - mkloes mkloes Apr 19, 2015 agree - edlef edlef Apr 20, 2015 - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Apr 20, 2015 There are of course many examples of products, platforms and services disrupting this environment, and it is without doubt one of the more persistent trends, but I would like to add as examples the ResearchGate Format for social reading/annotations, and also the fairly experimental Paper Now, using GitHub for scholarly communication - erik.stattin erik.stattin Apr 15, 2015 I agree that social networks for scholars (including ResearchGate and should be part of the conversation on this topic. - melissa.bowles-terry melissa.bowles-terry Apr 20, 2015
- dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 I agree with this but I think libraries play a bigger role in the evolving scholarly record. We have to be advocates for this new type of publishing and assist faculty in trying to get promotion and tenure changed at many research universities so that this new form of scholarly publishing is indeed seen as scholarly and acceptable for P&T. - Marwin.Britto Marwin.Britto Apr 19, 2015 Agreed! Current promotion and tenure standards at many research institutions are largely outdated and need to catch up with times take an inclusive view of scholarship and consider and accept new forms of scholarship, peer review models, metrics (e.g. altmetrics), etc. I also agree that we need to advocate for changes to scholarship models -- first and foremost in librarianship. :-) Our own tenure and promotion guidelines need to evolve. - melissa.bowles-terry melissa.bowles-terry Apr 20, 2015 Agreed. Helping researchers find a way to publish more opening is a huge challenge, but one worth pursuing especially as more and more countries (like my own Canada) implement OA policies that require funded research to be openly accessible. It's incredibly important for libraries/librarians to be at the table when these things are discussed at national, local and institutional levels. - jdupuis jdupuis Apr 27, 2015 Long term trend- lcshedd lcshedd Apr 15, 2015 - oren oren Apr 19, 2015 - jan.howden jan.howden Apr 19, 2015 With the evolution of the scholarly record, the role of the library and of the librarian (two different things) are not yet well defined acted upon , with lots of opportunities but also challanges (and risks). Von de Sompel and Trelor's workshop touches on many key issues pertaining to both the evolution as well as the challenges: - andreas.kirstein agree - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 20, 2015 - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015- cmkeithw cmkeithw Apr 28, 2015 a significant and important trend for all. Universities will continue to want to record research outputs from those employed at their institution. Verification and the ability to measure outputs will grow in significance and university research repositories will grow in significance. Some examples of this trend -- increasing number of data journals; several new journals publishing software as scholarly content; - escience escience Apr 27, 2015

Growing Value of Library Catalogs from Conceptual Connections
"New standards for the indexation of resources take into account new forms of publishing, information environments and technologies with particular regard to the Semantic Web. The modeling of conceptual connections, which consider scientific publications as a semantic composition of their components, will replace the cataloguing used in libraries today. The semantic representation allows machines to recognise an author not simply as a syntactic sequence of characters, but as a concept with a real person behind it. Library services will combine these semantic representations with other semantic representations in variable ways available on the World Wide Web and thus enable complex forms of information (for example offering CVs from other internet resources)." Thesis 9 by Klaus Tochtermann, in: In a similar vein the semantic enrichment of linked data that is impending with the development of Wikidata as a major Wikimedia project is already being investigated at Europeana. - mylee.joseph mylee.joseph Apr 19, 2015
I'm not sure I'm understanding what is meant by "conceptual connections" here. To the extent we're talking about the move to linked data, and the various ways library cataloging is embracing those possibilities, I agree that this is a key trend. Change is coming slowly though, so in spite of the fact that this is an active area of focus and discussion, I see this as a mid-term trend. - mcalter mcalter Apr 21, 2015 I agree about the vagueness of 'conceptual connections'. in my opinion this is a long-term trend. - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015

Growth of Streaming and On-Demand Services
Many people don't want to wait for an interlibrary loan or even to make the trip to the physical library. They want their information and media when and where they want it (which is oftentimes on the go) and will oftentimes settle for less than perfect resources if it means convenience. Many libraries are responding by providing eBooks, audiobooks, videos, etc. through services such as Overdrive, EBL, and more. I think that we'll see a lot more of this with forward-thinking libraries adopting many of the features of Netflix type services such as online and sharable queues of items with ratings, etc as well as adopting third-party services such as Hoopla which is largely for public libraries right now, but I can see it being adapted for academic as well. - kevin-johnson kevin-johnson Apr 2, 2015 I have commented elsewhere on this wiki, but along these lines, librarians should also be aware of the good to high quality readings available for free on Librivox; many of these have been posted by other, independent souls on YouTube. These audio books can support the learning of those with visual or reading impairments. My readings of Plato's dialogues (the Oxford University Press - Project Gutenberg public domain - translations by the brilliant Benjamin Jowett) - Critias, Lesser Hippias, Alcibiades 1, Protagoras, and Gorgias (Parts One and Two), have received more than 20,000 "views" - some of these YouTube postings run the text under the reading, a great assist to learning. - mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 14, 2015 I'd argue though that the services libraries can provide via vendors do not stack up against the big providers direct to consumers. HBO Now is an intriguing model, not directly related, but it points to a time when consumers can potentially tailor make their entertainment channels, etc. For academic libraries, this may not be a huge issue, but it's one to consider. - dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 agree - mkloes mkloes Apr 19, 2015 The problem with services like Netflix, etc. is that by the time they change their terms and conditions for use in libraries, the service isn't as attractive or cost effective as it is if one buys it as a consumer. I think a lot will still change in this area though. - Marwin.Britto Marwin.Britto Apr 19, 2015As the digital divide persists, these types of services further the gap between the haves and have-nots/low-income students. Yes, academic libraries have to do what we can to serve all students and provide access to low-income as well as privileged students. We can learn a lot from public libraries here. - melissa.bowles-terry melissa.bowles-terry Apr 20, 2015 See Digital Divide - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 very good point Melissa. International students is also a similar issue. How do we provide access to some of these resources for our students in mainland china?

Hyperlinked Libraries: Continuous Computing and Participation
New long-term impact trend. - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Apr 16, 20152015 Library Edition expert panel member Michael Stephens, in his "Hyperlinked Libraries" chapter in expert panel member Sandra Hirsh's newly released anthology Information Services Today: An Introduction, provides a summary of what could be a long-term trend as well as a unified theory of how libraries are currently evolving to serve library users' needs: "Hyperlinked library services are born from the constant, positive, and purposeful adaptation to change that is based on thoughtful planning and grounded in the mission of libraries. Information professionals embracing the hyperlinked model practice careful trend spotting and apply the tenets of librarianship along with an informed understanding of emerging technologies' societal and cultural impact. Information professionals communicate with patrons and potential users via open and transparent conversations using a wide variety of technologies across many platforms. The hyperlinked library model flourishes in both physical and virtual spaces by offering collections, activities, trainings, and events that actively transform spectators into participants. In participatory culture, everyone is in the business of advancing knowledge and increasing skill levels. The community is integrated into the structure of change and improvement" (p. 185). It includes elements of much of what we explore and document in the Horizon Project: how we are incorporating technology into the learning process, how tech tools support and expand the collaborative opportunities we have within learning organizations and the communities they serve; and what we do to keep our skill levels where they need to be to meet the needs of the organizations and learners we serve. Michael provides a much deeper description of hyperlinked libraries and resources on his "Tame the Web" site at -mstephens7 - Sandy.hirsh Sandy.hirsh Apr 19, 2015 Great addition! - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015

Increasing Accessibility of Research Content
Academic and research libraries are gradually embracing the movement toward openness as the Internet has opened the floodgates of information and scientific knowledge. The open access movement has been an influential element of this trend, and it has a significant following in the library community among those who believe in removing financial and intellectual barriers for scholarly work. Major funding entities such as the UK’s Research Excellence Framework, the National Science Foundation, and National Institutes of Health have implemented guidelines requiring researchers to include dissemination plans for their data along with their outputs, expanding access to encompass all scientific outputs. A number of libraries are opening up their institutional repositories, allowing the general public to access their research. Several journal publishers are meeting institutions halfway by developing novel payment schemes that are based on region or quantity of outputs. More collaboration is taking place between institutions as they work co-operatively to lower costs within the publication process. - kevin-johnson kevin-johnson Apr 2, 2015 A great boon to democracies! - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Apr 20, 2015 - david.groenewegen david.groenewegen Apr 10, 2015 This still feels like a very slow trend to me, and I'm not sure we have really thought enough about our long term role if it happens. The publishers are keen to retain control of their multi-billion dollar industry through services like CHORUS (, and as I have said elsewehere, when it comes to storage we are competing with Amazon. Accessibility will increase but usability will maybe not at the same pace. New formats and value added services will be the business of the future. However libraries should actively engage to increase accesibility and usability wherever possible [- frank.scholze frank.scholze Apr 17, 2015]
I agree with both of these statements. Libraries do try to increase accessibility to research data when they can but publishers want to make money and are not going to give up control easily or quickly. - dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 This trend drives open access repositories, as well as institutional publishing, led by libraries (library-as-a-publisher), of both journals and monographs. Worth noting the recent announcement from UC Press and CDL about the melon-funded development of a content and workflow management system to support the publication of OA monographs in the humanities and social sciences: Also relevant to note: the ARL’s SHARE initiative - oren oren Apr 19, 2015

Increasing Cross-Institution Collaboration
Collective action among libraries is growing in importance to drive best practices in technology use across the sector. More and more, libraries are joining consortia or alliances — associations of two or more organizations — to combine resources or to align themselves strategically with innovative initiatives. Today’s global environment is allowing libraries to unite across international borders and work toward common goals concerning technology use, and the sharing and co-creation of catalogs and standards. Support behind technology-enabled learning in libraries has reinforced the trend toward communities and consortia, as leaders in the space recognize collective action as a sustainable method of supporting upgrades in libraries’ technological infrastructures and digital offerings. Furthermore, many libraries reside on university campuses, affording them greater opportunities to leverage the resources of the universities.
Cooperation was the mega trend in the ARCL study on trends in academic libraries. Some use also the term "radical collaboration", which means that libraries have to cooperate in new forms. It will be more than coordination of services. Libraries have to decide which services they can provide on their own and which can be better provided by others (or in cooperation with others).- rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 14, 2015
This is also a cost/reduction in cost issue. New ILS systems are also impacting this area. Mid-term trend.- lcshedd lcshedd Apr 15, 2015
- Jacqueline.Fritz Jacqueline.Fritz Apr 18, 2015 This is a short-term trend. The budgeting benefits accelerate adoption of this trend.
The Canadian libraries do an excellent job in this area. We should be looking more towards them for models. Agreed. The Ontario higher ed model of multiple institutions collaborating to fund shared infrastructure is incredibly powerful. Not only is it effective and efficient, but the scale and scope of what we are able to do together gets us a seat at provincial and national tables when things such as OA policies are discussed. - jdupuis jdupuis Apr 27, 2015
- oren oren Apr 19, 2015 - jan.howden jan.howden Apr 19, 2015 agree for many years in the UK we have been supported by The JISC ( This is provided by the higher education funding councils in the UK through shared funding from publicly funded universities. The technology streams include digital resources and content. They have also been active in supporting projects that this apply technology to all library activities. This support has been crucial to establishing our current infrastructure and practice; enabling the rapid application of research. There are also many examples of where professional bodies encourage shared procurement. The drive from policy makers in the UK is mainly driven for shared services but there has been little shift or uptake amongst libraries perhaps due to the complexity of integrating one technology with the array of other institutional technologies and the continuing use of local standards and practices adding complexity to scoping shared systems. The benefits from shared research and development, and our ability to access a long tail of professional expertise for universities is hindered by the increased need to gain efficiency, but also by the need to provide better and broader range of services to users, which will increasingly be harder to do at an individual library level. a lot of this our continuing practices of local duplication. This is driven by the move to the Cloud which introduces a significant challenge and as a profession we could increase our impact through more possibilities for collaboration. Examples: The Orbis Cascade Alliance in the United States. Collaboration already happens, but I think we'll see a more radical trend towards abandoning traditional vendors in favour of co-funding development of new systems among similar national institutions- rurik.greenall rurik.greenall Apr 19, 2015 - Sandy.hirsh Sandy.hirsh Apr 19, 2015 Adding my support to this important trend. It is very important and long-term trend!.(- liusq liusq Apr 20, 2015) I agree that this is a mid to long term trend. - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 There are many facets to this. I'd call out shared print repository efforts as one that has been growing., - mcalter mcalter Apr 21, 2015

Increasing Focus on Research Data Management for Publications
The growing availability of research reports through online library databases is making it easier than ever for students, faculty, and researchers to access and build upon existing ideas and work. Archiving the observations that lead to new ideas has become a critical part of disseminating reports. Enhanced formats and workflows within the realm of electronic publishing have enabled experiments, tests, and simulation data to be represented by audio, video, and other media and visualizations. The emergence of these formats has led to libraries rethinking their processes for managing data and linking them between various publications. As a result, connections between research publications are crystalized, making it possible for researchers to discern how findings from one study have impacted another to get a better picture of how an idea has evolved over time, while exploring it from different angles. Advancements in digital data management are ultimately leading to more accurate subject search results and citations, and enabling libraries to more effectively curate and display relevant resources for patrons. - david.groenewegen david.groenewegen Apr 10, 2015I think is a super critical trend in the short to medium term, but raises lots of questions - do we have the technology to make these links, how do we work with researchers to make their data available (they generally aren't very keen), what is our role in curation and description if this data is placed on YouTube or Facebook or GitHub or Flickr or WordPress (all real use cases I have encountered). - I agree! thoughtful remarks. - rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 17, 2015 - oren oren Apr 19, 2015 agree. another challenge is to make this happen on an institutional level, as opposed to researchers doing it on their own and/or using services they already utilize (eg, researchgate, ...) Agreed - rurik.greenall rurik.greenall Apr 19, 2015 yes I think that working with researchers is one of the biggest challenges for this. - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015
Agree, critical trend in short to medium term. - erik.stattin erik.stattin Apr 19, 2015 - mkloes mkloes Apr 19, 2015 - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Apr 20, 2015 - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 It is a short-to-medium term trend!(- liusq liusq Apr 20, 2015)
Research data management will be important for more than just publications, especially as funders increasingly require research data to be open access and as data is disseminated outside of traditional publications. - janice.welburn janice.welburn Apr 20, 2015 - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015
This is an active area of effort for many libraries, so definitely a short-term trend. But one that has potential to have ongoing impacts. And it has strong connections to both the change evolving nature of the scholarly record and the impact of in-house research on the library. - mcalter mcalter Apr 21, 2015 - andreas.kirstein andreas.kirstein Apr 25, 2015 This is getting a big short-term bump from the delayed effect of the Holdren memo OA and open data policies from US federal funders. Many agencies are now releasing data management policies. A number of foundation funders have also recently issued these. - escience escience Apr 27, 2015 We are finding that these funder mandates are causing enough concern on campus that our data librarians have become the researcher's best new friend - cmkeithw cmkeithw Apr 28, 2015 Generating new tools for researchers to manage their data in ways that improve researcher productivity and facilitate publication and curation - g.payne g.payne Apr 17, 2015 Solvable challenge. Imagine your discipline utilises three or four standard tools to gather data and submit them for analysis in a a few workflow engines. And that these tools time stamp all updates to your active data set so you can retrieve the data that supports a research publication by re-running the same time stamped query you used to prepare the data for analysis in the original research. And you can pull down any data set of interest from the virtual archive maintained by university libraries word wide and know it is authentic and can be queued to the workflow engine without re-formatting. And your favourite tool includes collaboration mechanisms, and a publish button and a share button. that meets your data deposit obligations. And citing use of your favourite tool is all you need do to meet data management planning requirements. It will take time but it is achievable, and motivations are emerging. Trying to clean up data for curation at the end of, or worse still after the end of a research project is not a viable alternative. [Editor's Note: Added here from RQ4.]

Increasing Use of Hybrid/Blended Learning Designs
Education paradigms are shifting to include more online learning, blended, and hybrid learning, and collaborative models. Researchers, students, and faculty already spend much of their free time on the Internet, learning and exchanging new information. Institutions that embrace face-to-face, online, and hybrid learning models have the potential to leverage the online skills learners have already developed independent of academia. Online learning environments can offer different affordances than physical campuses, including opportunities for increased collaboration while equipping people with stronger digital skills. Hybrid models, when designed and implemented successfully, enable students to travel to campus for some activities, while using the network for others, taking advantage of the best of both environments. - kevin-johnson kevin-johnson Apr 2, 2015No less a light than Dr. Reif, president of M.I.T., sees MOOCs as the most significant change to education since the creation of the printing press; librarians ought to take note of this! - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Apr 8, 2015The good news is that hybrid/blended learning designs are receiving more attention from learning facilitators in libraries and elsewhere, and from learners using libraries and other learning organizations to meet their interrelated academic and lifelong-learning needs; the bad news is that many of these hybrid/blended learning offerings are poorly designed and unengaging, so learning facilitators and learners don't yet see the full potential in incorporating these practices into the learning process. MOOCs, connected learning, deeper learning, problem-based learning, and many other variations on the theme offer models worth pursuing within our academic library environments, as some of our more adventurous colleagues are demonstrating. - mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 13, 2015 This is an important trend that will only have more and more impact. Institutions must find their way into this landscape, with infrastructure, staff and support for the online learner. - Sandy.hirsh Sandy.hirsh Apr 19, 2015 Agree. I think this is going to be a short term trend because once we figure it out, which we are already doing, it will just be part of how we do things without having major future shifts. - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 15, 2015 [[user:dianeb|1429361944]- aarontay aarontay Apr 19, 2015] agreed - melissa.bowles-terry melissa.bowles-terry Apr 20, 2015 - Jacqueline.Fritz Jacqueline.Fritz Apr 18, 2015 agreed. I think this will become more sophisticated and will be around for a lot longer than we might assume as PBL opportunities require libraries to target and curate content in packages, curate more video and lecture capture, curate OER and library generated content, spaces too will evolve to facilitate this type of learning. - DaveP DaveP Apr 19, 2015 We only make tentative steps to be part of the online learning environment. Many universities are making headway in embedding reading list material in the virtual learning environment. Libraries have always supported many of the learning processes outlined above; perhaps implicitly. What we need to do is develop more pedagogic language that enables us to influence faculty to encourage the library to support access to content within the virtual learning environment. we need to up the speed of this as a trend for libraries to engage with.- jan.howden jan.howden Apr 27, 2015

Increasing Value of the User Experience
As advanced technology is rapidly commoditized, and a multiplicity of tools and services are on the market, user experience factors are a competitive advantage. Researchers, students, and teachers are expecting a user experience comparable to consumer grade products, and there’s an increasing demand for well-designed services supporting research and learning. Knowledge about service design, user research, rapid and often remote usability testing and having a toolkit for teasing out user behavior and needs is increasingly important. - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Apr 8, 2015This topic raises a basic, critically important question: if libraries were to ignore the (increasing) value of the user experience, what would attract users to libraries onsite and online? Technology, supported by creative, inquisitive, well-trained library staff members, is one important aspect of fostering a positive and engaging user experience, as we're seeing in makerspaces, delivery of library resources and services via mobile devices, and accessible, meaningful learning experiences in well-designed learning spaces that support learning goals and objectives. The more library staff and library users can do collaboratively to use technology as an effective tool in providing information services, the more likely it is that the user experience will continue to maintain the position of libraries as key elements of the learning process. - great input! - rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 17, 2015 -mstephens7 - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Apr 20, 2015 [[user:janice.welburn|1429588172] - cmkeithw cmkeithw Apr 28, 2015 - Jacqueline.Fritz Jacqueline.Fritz Apr 18, 2015 staff training is key - edlef edlef Apr 20, 2015 ...and the lack of interestof many colleagues in new developments - dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 The user experience is key not only in libraries but with anything. Why does Amazon care about us rating our experience or TripAdvisor care about that hotel? Because people use those ratings to determine whether to use a service or purchase a product. User experience is key to our way of life now. Libraries have always cared about the user experience but now we are doing it in more formalized ways with better tools. Most major research universities will have a user experience department or a person doing user experience in the library. - oren oren Apr 19, 2015 agree but when it comes to students, in the heart of this trend is the goal to increase student engagement. - aarontay aarontay Apr 19, 2015 I seem to see this trend increasing among both vendors of library products and among libraries themselves. But there's still away to go. Also user experience is often bad because libraries use so many different products. It takes time for different vendors to slowly converge to a UI that is commonly agreed to be "good". - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 Absolutely! Learning how to streamline the variety of vendor designs and restrictions into a perfect user experience is close to impossible. UX increasingly an important tool for libraries see Weave journal Journal of Library User Experience - DaveP DaveP Apr 19, 2015 User experience is the important for libraries to design services, Any services which don't consider UX can not succeed really (- liusq liusq Apr 20, 2015) I think the mention of vendors is important here. Yes, we can do better about what create (e.g. thinking the library web site and mobile issues), but what about when we are contracting services and resources? How much control do we have in the contract phase to impact our UX? - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 20, 2015

Massive Reinvention of the Personal Computer
The computer is smaller, lighter, and better connected than ever before, without the need for wires or bulky peripherals. In many cases, smartphones and other mobile devices are sufficient for basic computing needs, and only specialized tasks require a keyboard, large monitor, and a mouse. Mobiles are connected to an ecosystem of applications supported by cloud computing technologies that can be downloaded and used instantly, for pennies. As the capabilities and interfaces of small computing devices improve, our ideas about when — or whether — a traditional computer is necessary are changing as well. Might fork this one a bit and suggest that it's not just a reinvention of the device we will face, but the rise and fall of various operating systems and environments. It appears that Google has finally decided to emphasize and push ChromeOS. If that trend continues, Chromebooks/boxes will move from the margins to the centre. Most libraries are built on a foundation of Microsoft products with a generous helping of Apple; the emergence of Chrome could radically alter this comfortable duality. This is a mid-term trend, as it takes time for devices to accumulate, and forecasts show the sales numbers increasing over the next two to three years. - askeyd askeyd Apr 20, 2015 not so sure about this. Seems very unpredictable today - andreas.kirstein andreas.kirstein Apr 25, 2015

Prioritization of Mobile Content and Delivery
Mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and e-readers are capturing a larger share of the information market. A Pew Research Center study of American adults reported that 42% own tablet computers, 55% own a smartphone, and 50% have a dedicated handheld device. With this shift to mobile content consumption, patrons, faculty, researchers, and students are expecting access to library resources anytime and anywhere. To adapt to this growing demand, academic and research libraries are integrating mobile options for content and delivery into their services, including mobile-friendly versions of websites, apps, catalogs, and e-books. Some libraries are furthering this trend by loaning devices such as tablets and e-readers to patrons, just as they would a printed book. As the types of mobile devices and applications continue to evolve, libraries are becoming more focused on lasting solutions that are device-neutral.
Was one of our favorites in 2014, but meanwhile I would say: just do it!- rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 17, 2015 - oren oren Apr 19, 2015- Sandy.hirsh Sandy.hirsh Apr 19, 2015 Agree. - edlef edlef Apr 20, 2015 - dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 nothing new here. We are already on this bandwagon.
Our services need to be built with responsive design - DaveP DaveP Apr 19, 2015 - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 23, 2015 Taking this further, perhaps the trend is that we will begin designing first for mobile and small screens, and then adding a large-screen version, rather than the other way around. When teaching classes these days, it's clear to me that students think a 13" laptop is a large screen. They only use monitors such as we staff/faculty use when gaming, it seems. We should notice this. - askeyd askeyd Apr 20, 2015 agreed - melissa.bowles-terry melissa.bowles-terry Apr 20, 2015 No disagreements with the above comments. The mobile device is a personal portal to the world connecting one to info and services needed to navigate life. The delivery of library collections and services in the mobile environment is vital. - janice.welburn janice.welburn Apr 20, 2015 we've had an interesting use case come up recently where our students (artists & designers) are using microscopic camera adapters on their iPhones to examine materials for their projects. They then want to link to the materials' record in the library catalogue (we have a materials library with circulating swatches of fabric, metals, composites, etc.). We are starting to purchase these microscopic camera adapters. This relates to not only this trend but also linked data. - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015

Proliferation of Open Educational Resources
Openness — concepts like open content, open data, and open resources, along with notions of transparency and easy access to data and information — is becoming a value across education. As traditional sources of authority are augmented by downloadable content, however, there is need for more curation and other forms of validation that can communicate the credibility of a resource. Complicating the landscape in some ways, “open” has become a term often applied in very different contexts. Often mistaken to simply mean “free,” open education advocates are working towards a common vision that defines “open” more broadly — not just free in economic terms, but educational materials that are freely copiable, freely remixable, and free of barriers to access, sharing, and educational use. - kevin-johnson kevin-johnson Apr 2, 2015 This is an exciting impetus stemming from the great democracies in the world today. Tim Berners-Lee - that father of the Internet (along with Vinton Cerf) - is behind this movement in his home nation - the UK. There is also a discussion on open licences in the technologies section. But I think there are more aspects on open content that have a strong impact on libraries. We started long time ago with the discussion on Open Access. The topic is still important, but it extends on more fields. Now Open Educational Resources, open research data and open content become more and more important. In Germany and Switzerland libraries organized hackathons in which people from many different sectors came together in order to find out what they can do with open published data. And on of the results was that often content delivered by libraries (digitized books, photographs, maps) was not clearly decleared as open or reusable. Especiall for Digital Humanities it is crucial to have open access to large datasets - and these can be delievered by libraries. But they have to publish these objects under a Creative Commons license. So open content gives libraries the opportunity to serve directly the needs of researchers.- rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 14, 2015 - jan.howden jan.howden Apr 19, 2015All of the above are very much live and evolving issues for Universities in Scotland. See for our mandate on this. I think this is an extremely important area - with significant implications for academic libraries. - Sandy.hirsh Sandy.hirsh Apr 19, 2015 Very important - janice.welburn janice.welburn Apr 20, 2015 very important and a given the stronghold by publishers, I think a long-term trend - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 BC Campus ( and OpenStax ( are doing interesting things. See: - shines shines Apr 27, 2015

Rethinking Library Spaces
Libraries are engaging in meaningful discussion toward multi-year planning and redesign efforts that ensure the library's physical space conforms to the needs of its visitors. New library space designs must serve multiple functions as a central information commons, study space, collaborative workspace and a creative laboratory space. Patrons still look to the library to give them a place where they can focus on individual focused tasks, while the library is simultaneously serving as a hub that offers tools and space to cater to a rising collaborative maker culture. The proliferation of mobile devices and BYOD also means that libraries must turn their attention to supporting mobility, flexibility, and usage of multiple devices with a robust wireless infrastructure while also providing the necessary technologies to enable collaboration and creation. Smart use of physical space can better accommodate the varying needs - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Apr 1, 2015Completely agree that this is a key trend well worth documenting and supporting for the reasons I already posted in the "Updating Physical Facilities and Developing New Services" section of our "Key Challenges" page ( in this 2015 Library Edition wiki. The mention of BYOD here is a great example of how the need to rethink library spaces is at least partially driven by the ongoing rapid rate of change in educational-technology developments; the more attention we can offer to library user and library staff preferences in terms of what they literally bring to library spaces, the better we will be in our ongoing efforts to serve our various constituents at the best possible level. An additional resource for us--a recently published article from Edutopia ("21st Century Libraries: The Learning Commons"; focuses on how school libraries are reconfiguring spaces to support learning; plenty here appears applicable to academic and other libraries.
Really important trend, agree! In the field of public libraries researchers from Denmark formulated the 4 space model. It would be interesting to see, how it can be applied also to academic libraries. The library space needs to be rethought. As holdings get more and more virtual there is also a big challenge to make library holdings and services visible for the users and visitors of the building.- rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 14, 2015 Absolutely agree, important trend and challenge. Combines development of traditional library services, learning environment and human computer interaction in the broadest sense (including byod, gesture based computing, voice control etc.) [- frank.scholze frank.scholze Apr 17, 2015] Agree. Print loans at an all time low, while door count is at an all time high necessitates re-purposing prime space from housing low use print to collaborative learning spaces to meet demand arising from flipped classroom teaching models and collaborative learninig models. - g.payne g.payne Apr 17, 2015 - oren oren Apr 19, 2015 I see this as a short, mid and long term trend. Libraries are constantly changing and we are forever adapting our spaces for those changes. Sometimes, we do minor changes in the short term when money is non-existent or limited and other times we have the opportunity to plan a major renovation or change of space in our libraries. I think this will always be a trend! - dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 agree :) - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 - jan.howden jan.howden Apr 19, 2015agree with this. Spaces, like retail spaces, will continue to support our online services And delivery a brand for support and added value/ experience. I would add into this description, the need for technology experts delivering support and encouraging patrons to use tools. Collaborative technology will continue to be delivered in hubs like libraries.
- mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 19, 2015 "Library as Classroom" I am struggling a bit with where to share this, maybe for this trend: The Elements of the Creative Classroom Research Model, developed by the European Commission Institute for Prospective Technological Studies and highlighted as part of the Horizon report’s methodology, represent the catalysts and potential for new models of instruction. The team’s report defines creative classrooms as “learning environments that fully embed the potential of [information and communications technology] to innovate learning and teaching practices” and the term classrooms is used “in its widest sense to include all types of learning environments: formal, nonformal, and informal.” - mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 19, 2015 "How Do You Design the Library of the Future?" May be useful? - Sandy.hirsh Sandy.hirsh Apr 19, 2015 Agree this is a key trend.
- mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 20, 2015 Also please see this: Brian Mathews reports on new furniture for learning spaces/libraries. - edlef edlef Apr 20, 2015 this is a important topic, there are over the last two years less shelfs in our reading rooms and we need more quiet places, nice examples! Yes, a trend, but many academic libraries are not clearly thinking through how they want the space to specifically support learning within their institution. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Apr 20, 2015 Joan, I totally agree with you. For every NCSU and Virginia tech, there are plenty of academic libraries mired in trying to figure out what 21st Century learning is all about. - mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 20, 2015 - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 We still have movable stacks on the first floor (prime location). We need so much change. I also made some comments on this topic in the "Updating Physical Facilities and Developing New Services" section of our "Key Challenges" page ( - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 20, 2015 Important. In general, library spaces will continue to evolve to serve shifting learning and research needs for greater collaboration and increased interdisciplinary as well as students as both learners and creators. New library buildings or major renovations are no longer the “end all” of library spaces (no more “one and done”). Library spaces need to be continuously updated and evolving, but this takes funds and the convincing of stakeholders. - janice.welburn janice.welburn Apr 20, 2015 Definitely see this as a key trend. There is a real dichotomy here, in that in many ways, the library has become virtual, but the demand for physical space that is explicitly "library" is also growing - mcalter mcalter Apr 21, 2015 - mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 24, 2015 See below in "Shift Away from Books" for some stuff tied to this one...this book is a great read about this trend. Wonderful approach. - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 Key trend. The challenge is getting other campus stakeholders to embrace library spaces as different and somehow enhanced over other campus student-oriented spaces such as student centres. Library spaces have the potential to be richer, more welcoming, more open and friendlier. Remains a trend. Makespaces ties into this as well. - escience escience Apr 27, 2015 As libraries redesign space, they should be mindful of faculty; libraries are generally centrally located on campuses and make excellent spaces for cross-pollination. Creating a space in the library that is "faculty only" communicates an investment in faculty. See: Libraries also make great art galleries: - shines shines Apr 27, 2015
Emergence of Collaborative Research Spaces Emergence of the research commons, that is collaborative spaces to allow engagement between librarians and researchers, between researchers from different disciplines, utilisation of specialised facilities such as visualisation laboratories and advice and training in research data management techniques, and exposure to new technologies such as 3D printing in technology sandpits.
Duke University, See Washington State University, See North Carolina State University, See University of California Los Angeles, See
StellenBosch University, See [[user:g.payne|1429257313]- dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 agree - DaveP DaveP Apr 19, 2015 UX and classroom design is being influenced by what happens in libraries - the library as a lab - mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 20, 2015 This is a notable thing, the library as classroom/lab/collaboration space. There is often a lot of overlap in what some libraries call research commons and what some call digital scholarship centers or labs. In each case, there is a very wide range of how libraries program these services/spaces and whether they end up serving their intended audiences. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Apr 20, 2015 I agree with Joan, lots of similar services called something different. I like the ideas presented here and love the links, but I think this can be worked into other topic areas. - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 20, 2015 - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 I see this as an extension of 'Rethinking Library Spaces'

Rise of New Forms of Multidisciplinary Research
According to the Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, multidisciplinary research refers to concurrent exploration and activities in seemingly disparate fields. Digital humanities and computational social science research approaches are opening up pioneering areas of multidisciplinary research at libraries and innovative forms of scholarship and publication. Researchers, along with academic technologists and developers, are breaking new ground with data structures, visualization, geospatial applications, and innovative uses of open-source tools. At the same time, they are pioneering new forms of scholarly publication that combine traditional static print style scholarship with dynamic and interactive tools, which enables real-time manipulation of research data. Applying quantitative methods to traditionally qualitative disciplines has led to new research categories such as Distant Reading and Macroanalysis — the study of large corpuses of texts as opposed to close reading of a few texts. These emerging areas could lead to exciting new developments in libraries, but effective organizational structures will need to be in place to support this collaboration. - andreas.kirstein andreas.kirstein Apr 8, 2015 agree at all - frank.scholze frank.scholze Apr 13, 2015 agree as well. Apart from scholarly communication/electonic publishing including research data this could have impact on rethinking library space - as a driver but also as an object of multidisciplinary research. - mkloes mkloes Apr 19, 2015 agree - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 yes this also ties into new methods to provide exposure to libraries resources. How do we expose these new data structures, visualizations, geospatial applications, etc. At one end of the
continuum there is the Hunt Library model of large scale interactive displays, at the other the trend of "Growing Value of Library Catalogs from Conceptual Connections"

Rise of the Personal Portable Library
Copying and distributing copy-written material has long been a concern for libraries, yet they may be facing a huge transformation as the movement toward offline libraries gains momentum in this day and age. Indeed, in ancient times, libraries existed to copy knowledge. These copies were made to ensure that physical data was not lost if a clay tablet was broken or a papyrus scroll ruined. When pulp paper become the standard, which made every sort of print media easily produced and distributed, copyright laws were put into place and enforced to protect the authors. Libraries then transformed into storehouses of knowledge. Now, in the digital age, copyright has become ever more, yet many resist these laws advocating for universal access to knowledge, an inalienable right put forth by the UN Declaration of Human Rights. With the today’s technologies, offline libraries can hold massive amounts of content. A terabyte drive can hold 200,000 PDF books, if they are 5mb each; the same drive can hold 1,000,000 ePublications if they are 1mb each. Offline sharing is steadily growing, and if libraries strive to stay relevant, they must consider what role they play in the system of knowledge creation, preservation, and distribution. Its not how much content you have access to its what you do with it - libraries are exploring this and should exploit this unique opportunity to engage with knowledge creation and curation - DaveP DaveP Apr 19, 2015 With the rise of technologies such as Whispercast ( is it possible that institutions may turn away from "in house" libraries and turn toward commercial vendors? Professors are beginning to ask for this technology so they can amass and share their personal libraries with their students. - shines shines Apr 27, 2015

Shift Away from Books
At a time when libraries are investing efforts in digitizing assets, while rearranging spaces to accommodate digital services alongside stacks, there is an emerging model for libraries that forgoes physical books altogether. This trend can be seen in the BiblioTech, America’s first digital public library in San Antonio, Texas, which opened at the start of 2014. Instead of books, the shelves in this library hold eReaders and tablets that can be loaned out, and features a collection of over 10,000 titles. Mac computers and touchscreen tables are also available for patron use. This development is illuminating a new role for libraries in society as access points for the latest technologies. - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Apr 8, 2015Not at all convinced that there is a shift away from (physical) books; we can just as easily say that resources have expanded through the addition of digital resources without saying that there is a significant trend toward digital resources replacing books; if we see this as an and-and choice rather than an either-or choice, we are positioned to continue providing library users with a variety of information resources that continue to meet their needs. - dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 agreed that I don't see a shift away from still having physical books. Many of our researchers and students like the physical book. Many small publishers still only supply print. We are shifting towards electronic but there is still great demand for physical. - mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 24, 2015 I think this is closely related with "Rethinking Library Spaces" above. I wrote a column about the "books going away" (they are not) here The comments indicate this is a conversation that must be had and people feel very strongly about it. Agree- cmkeithw cmkeithw Apr 28, 2015 For art libraries there really is almost no shift away from books. The monograph is still a strong art form that is a critical component of many art disciplines, such as photography and printmaking. Additionally we find that electronic resources usually do not match the quality of visual representations in print materials. While this is changing, the shift from print to electronic is driven by text-based resources. Very often images are omitted or replaced with poor quality derivatives that do not allow our researchers to gain the same insight as from the print publication. Until we find a solution (both technical and economical) for this, art libraries will need to continue to develop their print collections. - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015

Shift from Patrons as Consumers to Patrons as Creators
A shift is taking place in the focus of pedagogical practice on university campuses all over the world as students, faculty, and researchers across a wide variety of disciplines are learning by making and creating rather than from the simple consumption of content. Creativity, as illustrated by the growth of user-generated videos, maker communities, and crowdfunded projects in the past couple years, is increasingly the means for active, hands-on learning. People now look to libraries to assist them and provide tools for skill-building, creating and making. The library is an ideal environment to serve as a makerspace because it is a natural extension of its traditional role as a facilitator of knowledge creation and as a space where scholars of different disciplines can converge. - kevin-johnson kevin-johnson Apr 2, 2015 Add to this the ease of digital self-publishing (please refer to my comment above under "Evolving Nature of the Scholarly Record".
This trend is related to makerspaces - and indeed relevant also for libraries. I see also a possible shift from patrons as customers to patrons as partners, which means that patrons should be involved in creating new services and in innovation (open innovation).- rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 14, 2015 - Marwin.Britto Marwin.Britto Apr 17, 2015 I definitely agree - melissa.bowles-terry melissa.bowles-terry Apr 20, 2015 - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 - Jacqueline.Fritz Jacqueline.Fritz Apr 18, 2015 The need to support digital media literacy skill acquisition among students and faculty relates to this concept too. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Apr 20, 2015 - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 23, 2015 - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 Agree with the above responses - dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 - oren oren Apr 20, 2015 very much agree. Echoing previous comments, this shift has resulted in an emphasis on hands-on learning experiences using makerspaces and digital media labs. Undergraduate student are expected to engage in research and publication more than ever in the form of research posters, capstone projects and OA student journals. - janice.welburn janice.welburn Apr 20, 2015 I'm working on an article with a professor in the College of Education that's directly related to this shift. - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 23, 2015 Key trend and arguably one of the most critical in the log run. Not the makerspace aspect so much as the aspect of patrons becoming creators of meaning by annotating and creating connections among content. - escience escience Apr 27, 2015

Transformation of Identity Management
From CNI: "Libraries continue to explore of the potential future convergence between identities as established by campus-based identity management systems on one hand, and personal names as used in the context of scholarly communication, citation, and bibliographic control name authority on the other. Historically, these worlds have been almost completely separate and highly insular, but the emergence of sophisticated author rights retention strategies, institutional and disciplinary repositories, advanced bibliometrics and webmetrics, faculty activity tracking and research management systems, and directories and social discovery systems in academic settings, are clearly bringing them into closer alignment. Connections to public history, genealogy, and prosopography or large-scale biography are also fast emerging, essentially recognizing potential continuity between forward-looking infrastructure and historical documentation."
Agree strongly. ISNI and ORCID need to collaborate to support identity management for individuals and corporate bodies in particular, as researcher identities and their affilliations need to be machine processable to improve ranking algorithms and capability to identify for funding agencies which research outputs were generated in the course of work under funded by particular research grant. Libraries are being turned to to assist with this, as disambiguation is authority control by another name! - g.payne g.payne Apr 17, 2015 Agree but it implies that libraries will reform their policies and processes on authority control [- frank.scholze frank.scholze Apr 17, 2015] Authority control remains a hard problem to solve, but it's one that resonates throughout library operations. This trend has potential to make a significant impact, but I see the impact in the relatively long term. - mcalter mcalter Apr 21, 2015

Added as New Trends from RQ2

Growth of Digital Scholarship Centers
A number of academic libraries are creating digital scholarship centers or labs or in some cases digital humanities centers; the former often serve social sciences and humanities and sometimes sciences. I would place this under the overall heading of "Learning Strategy" since it is the combination of space, technologies, expertise, and programs that constitutes a center or lab. They focus on high end or extensive digital projects, whether data visualization of archaeological data or text mining of the large collection of materials in HathiTrust or new types of analysis of digitized sound recordings. Most of these centers combine work with research projects (with faculty partners) with a strong teaching and learning element. This includes stand-alone workshops on technologies, courses, certificate programs (in digital humanities, for example), and working closely with faculty on specific digital research projects in which they involve their students. CNI report and description of 20 centers here - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Apr 4, 2015 - oren oren Apr 14, 2015 - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Apr 14, 2015 I don't know that this topic is new or emerging. - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 15, 2015 I agree that this is not new but there does appear to be a momentum of interest in this topic more recently. - Marwin.Britto Marwin.Britto Apr 17, 2015 - dianeb dianeb Apr 17, 2015 I agree that it's not really new and wonder why there is more interest in this recently.--There definitely is new momentum around these centers, but I see them as setting up services under a broader umbrella to include digital publishing (including student publishing), digital humanities projects, faculty reputation management, and even instructional design.- anthony.helm anthony.helm Apr 18, 2015 Excellent - DaveP DaveP Apr 19, 2015 - mylee.joseph mylee.joseph Apr 19, 2015 Yes, Anthony, I can agree with that 100%. - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 20, 2015 I saw an announcement today (4/21) that ALA as formed a Digital Scholarship Center IG: - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 21, 2015 - jdupuis jdupuis Apr 27, 2015 I like the idea of digital scholarship centres in libraries but would like to see them more widely embraced beyond digital humanities and social sciences. There are lots of opportunities to embrace business, science and engineering researchers via GIS, data visualization, metadata, linked open data and many other technologies.

New Ways to Measure and Evaluate Research
Alt-Metrics: Thinking of the limitations of the impact factor (journal rather than article-based, easily gamed, etc) and other research metrics, it might be worth thinking about the library's role in helping faculty and other researchers think about new ways to measure and evaluate research -- traditional and social media mentions, download counts, twitter traffic and all the rest. Lots of issues here too, but worthwhile as a balance to traditional metrics. Impact Story, Altmetric, Plum Analytics are companies in this space doing interesting things. I put together a reading list for a recent presentation here. - jdupuis jdupuis Apr 27, 2015
-This is a very active and important area. Notable trends include a NISO recommended practices effort ; commercial analytic service offerings (and absorbtion of PlumAnalytics and others) by Elsevier, MacMillan and Thomson reuters; and publisher uptake of formal contributorship schemas to augment altmetrics;; [Editor's Note: Great points! This reads more like a trend and is being added to RQ3.]

Using New Forms of Technology to Enhance Accessibility to Library Services and Resources
- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Apr 1, 2015The use of assistive technology as a way of fostering access to library services and resources among those with disabilities is hardly new, but the possibility of adapting newer forms of technology (e.g., wearable technology 3D printing, and mobile devices) into the assistive technology landscape seems to be in the early stages of development. Noting it here and exploring it further in the "Key Challenges" section of the 2015 Library Edition wiki as a potentially new "difficult challenge." - Jacqueline.Fritz Jacqueline.Fritz Apr 16, 2015 Agreed! - dianeb dianeb Apr 17, 2015 Me too! - mylee.joseph mylee.joseph Apr 19, 2015
I agree -- particularly that we should explore the accessibility to our resources and services facilitated by wearable technology and mobile devices - melissa.bowles-terry melissa.bowles-terry Amen. - mstephens7 mstephens7 Apr 18, 2015 Yes, 3D printing and mobile devices in particular are already having a significant impact. - Marwin.Britto Marwin.Britto Apr 19, 2015 - jdupuis jdupuis Apr 27, 2015 Text to speech translation on routine devices like tablets or ereaders is something to keep in mind here as well. - kevin-johnson kevin-johnson Apr 2, 2015 Related to Paul's idea above, a not-new, but perhaps less known resource for assisting those with reading or visual impairment are the many volunteer created audio recordings on Librivox. About four years ago I volunteered as a reader for Librivox. Here is how it works - you select a work from Project Gutenberg; these are public domain works that include all of the great authors prior to the twentieth century. As a reader, you use free, open-source recording software, and are assigned an Editor and a dedicated, proof listener. In some cases the dedicated listener has specific, relevant skills, as when I made the more than 7 hour recording in Middle English of Chaucer's masterpiece "Troilus and Criseyde". It is a bona fide system that creates good to high quality recordings available for free. Independently of my Librivox work, several people posted my readings of Chaucer and of five of Plato's dialogues (the great Benjamin Jowett translations: Oxford University Press) on YouTube. YouTube thus also carries numerous Librivox readings. On YouTube alone, more than 20,000 people have "viewed" my readings - particularly those of Plato: Critias, Lesser Hippias, Alcibiades I, Protagoras, and Gorgias (Parts one and two). - Marwin.Britto Marwin.Britto Apr 17, 2015What a worthy initiative! I am going to investigate this further. Thanks for sharing, Kevin.
Assistive Technology to Foster Accessibility to Library Services and Resources - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Apr 1, 2015Creating access to library services and resources for those with disabilities is hardly a new topic; the American Library Association's ASCLA (Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies) division is among those offering guidance through its "Library Accessibility -- What You Need to Know" page ( and the link to its "Assistive Technology" tip sheet ( A library colleague's recent comment about the difference between what libraries strive to offer in this area and what library users' experiences with the technology actually are raises an interesting question: are we effectively using assistive technology to create the highest levels of access possible? Glancing at an online description for an assistive technology workshop scheduled for April 8, 2015 through the Pacer Center ( suggests there are plenty of options to be explored here, e.g., "wearable technology, 3D printing, mobile devices, and more -- and their potential to help children [and other learners] with disabilities and learning differences" ( Might be interesting to see what other members of the Library Edition panel of experts are seeing within their own libraries and whether they agree that this is a difficult challenge in the sense that much more could be done to make library services and resources available through more creative and widespread use of assistive technology.
- kevin-johnson kevin-johnson Apr 9, 2015 I also think Paul's reminder here is warranted - we need to consider this minority; it should be our democratic duty.- I agree! and I refer to the topic accessiblity of online resources - a field on which still a lot of work has to be done. There are formats like EPUB3 that give many options but still only few e-books are really accessible. - rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 16, 2015 While not a new topic, it's a topic with new life. On our campus we formed the "ADA Technology Compliance Working Group" in late 2011 in response to these two letters:, Discussions included point of need vs. new standards for providing more accessible resources as part of regular workflows. Our group developed a Technology Accessibility Plan that was submitted to our administration in late 2012. This was a HUGH cross-campus effort that included a number of people from the libraries (including myself). Accessing Higher Ground is a great resource for this topic( Their focus is "Accessible media, Universal Design and Assistive Technology in the university, business and public setting; Legal and policy issues, including ADA and 508 compliance; The creation of accessible media and information resources, including Web pages and library resources." Here's an example of the workshop options being offered on our campus for accessibility (this is not a library effort). - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 16, 2015. I agree that this is an important topic and not just for the library community but the entire campus. Regardless of how small the community might be on your campus, we have an obligation to make resources and services accessible to all. Our library has an Assistive Technology group that works on these issues all the time with guidance from our Disability Services department. We have a link on our website to talk about the services we offer. As the person responsible for our website and all the technology in the library, I make sure that our products are accessible to all. - dianeb dianeb Apr 18, 2015 [Editor's Note: This reads like a trend and the discussions here will be moved to RQ3.]

Added as a Challenge to RQ4 (Items on this list were proposed here as trends, but read more like challenges)

Development of Archival Standards
For archives, the long term impact trend is the development of standards. We’re seeing a growing adoption of Encoded Archival Description (EAD), and we’re seeing the development of EAC (Encoded Archival Context). I would also say metadata standards (usually locally defined) are also driving technology, and will continue to do so as we see more consistency in defining our digital objects. All of this, of course, has an impact on accessibility to archival materials, and the increased demand to have materials identifiable (if not actually accessible) on line. - janice.welburn janice.welburn Apr 20, 2015 [Editor's Note: Adding to existing RQ4 challenge discussion for Capturing and Archiving the Digital Outputs of Research as Collection Material.]

Impact of In-House Research on Library Innovation
...and the Customer Orientation of Libraries "In the future, libraries will not only support research with scientific literature; to a considerable degree they will actively and creatively carry out research of their own – both at the national and international level. Research will take place within the disciplines of applied computer science, in particular media informatics, and information sciences. With this research, libraries aim to continually provide their online services in close cooperation with their customer groups and at a high level of innovation. Libraries will thus become equal partners in the research community and as a part thereof can meet the continuous change in research on equal footing. Thus, libraries will be able to adjust their services in literature provision even better to customer requirements." Thesis 2 by Klaus Tochtermann, in:
I would love to see this happen, but the research/work load models would have to change for this to have reaching impact. This thesis conflicts with our reality of more and more positions being converted to Clinical faculty or technology professional positions. If it happens at all it will be a long term trend. - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 15, 2015 I could more agree to this topic being a challenge for libraries - to be accepted as partners of researchers. Only few libraries really manage to have their own research and I think it would be more useful to cooperate with LIS at universities.- rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 16, 2015 - andreas.kirstein andreas.kirstein Apr 25, 2015 I think we will see some differentiation here. Some (few?) libraries already follow this strategic aim (including Tochtermann's ZBW) some do not even dare to think about doing r&d. [- frank.scholze frank.scholze Apr 17, 2015] - dianeb dianeb agreed. At many universities, faculty are the researchers; librarians assist them with their research. There would have to be a huge shift in those thought processes for this to happen. - andreas.kirstein andreas.kirstein Apr 25, 2015 agree I'm of the opinion that if libraries don't involve themselves in this way, there's a real issue — there's a need to be an expert on the cutting edge of the things happening in libraries & that only happens via research - rurik.greenall rurik.greenall Apr 19, 2015 Libraries and Librarians need to work with learning technologists and produce rapid prototypes for service enhancement based upon research and observation - DaveP DaveP Apr 19, 2015 - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015 critical point. There is significant international participation in evidence based librarianship practice - see the the open access journal, Evidence Based Library and Information Practice - mylee.joseph mylee.joseph Apr 20, 2015 I don't think so ,it is difficult for libraries to become EQUAL partners in the research communities, librarians could involve with research partly, but it is hard to devote much due to limits of time and energy.(- liusq liusq Apr 20, 2015) - edlef edlef Apr 20, 2015 I have an amazing relalationship with the faculty on my campus. I will also add that while I do presentations and writing as an equal partner with faculty it's about what we do, which I don't consider research. For example, some of the titles are “Dubbing Narratives as a Way to Enhance Language Learning in Content-­‐Based Instruction,” "Art, Science, Multimedia: Changing the Freshman Art Experience through Collaboration and Technology," and "Using Digital Stories to Promote Learning in Graduate-Level Education Coursework." I do not consider that research, but that's the kind of writing and presenting we do in libraries. It's also a question of time. We are expected to meet all of the Professional Contributions and Service requirements for tenure after we work a full 40+ at our "regular" job. - lcshedd lcshedd Apr 20, 2015 This is challenging, and not well-supported by libraries. Witness the closing/repurposing of the Harvard Library Innovation Lab. We are having some initial success at MIT with the program on information science -- working with faculty in several research efforts in information privacy, online educational systems, big data, etc. - escience escience Apr 27, 2015 We are also having some progress in this area at Carnegie Mellon - collaborating with computer scientists - cmkeithw cmkeithw Apr 28, 2015 [Editor's Note: Based on these wonderful discussions, it sounds like this fits in better as a Challenge and is being moved to RQ4.]

The transition from subject-based faculty liaison librarians, to specialisation in either teaching and learning librarianship, and research librarianship.
To provide the expertise to partner with researchers to foster research data management planning and data publication now mandated by many funding authorities, advice on demonstrating research impact, assistance with training around visualisation techniques, advice on which metadata schemas are appropriate for research description now requires staff that focus on these aspects of what is emerging a data science. And the traditional research related specialised advice and searching continues. Similarly teaching and learning related work increasing relies on specialised skills, such as educational design skills, creating open educational resources for information literacy, and skills in integrating these resources into presentation of curricula in learning management systems, as well as traditional reference work. - g.payne g.payne Apr 17, 2015 - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Apr 20, 2015 - oren oren Apr 20, 2015 agree, though see this as a long term trend. Libraries involvement in the life cycle of research products (could) include also help and guidance in measurements and impact of researchers scholarly work. - Jacqueline.Fritz Jacqueline.Fritz Apr 18, 2015 Evolving literacy standards:
[Editor's Note: Added to RQ4 challenge Rethinking the Roles and Skills of Librarians.]

Other Key Points

As the possibilities for anyone with an interest in technology to build fairly sophisticated technology solutions based on open hardware and software, prototyping new products and services will become more prevalent. Rather than finding the funds and investing in expensive technology without a clear return on that investment, organizations (libraries included) will have an opportunity to rapidly make simple but capable solutions that can be tested with users, and then be built on or scrapped for a new kind of prototype to test. - erik.stattin erik.stattin Apr 19, 2015 I added this also as a challenge... Prototyping, agile development, SPRINT and similar concepts become more and more important not only for programming, but also for developing services and even new internal structures.- rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Apr 23, 2015

Changing Nature of Search and Search Interfaces
Search algorithms are changing to prioritise mobile content (eg. Google changes that come into effect this month ) - mylee.joseph mylee.joseph Apr 19, 2015
Some researchers may prefer not to have all information sources channeled through a seamless discovery interface and may value the "seams and edges" - see this paper by Tim Sherratt - mylee.joseph mylee.joseph Apr 19, 2015 Visual search interfaces may become more important for users and are facilitated by APIs and open data - see this paper by Mitchell Whitelaw - mylee.joseph mylee.joseph Apr 19, 2015 YES!!! - ahaar ahaar Apr 24, 2015